[Amel] Re: 24v Solar panels

Martin <yachtcaduceus@...>

My contribution - if it helps?

We are now on our second set of solar panels, the first appeared to have a manufacturing fault and someof the cells burned through.

Both installations have been 2 sets of two panels wired in series to give 24v and then in parallel. 24volt panels now seem to be unobtainable in the USA. The original panels were 125 watt panels and the latest much better Kyocera are I believe 140watt each. This is probably larger than you are envisaging and therefore my approach to controllers may be over the top.

The original installation was done with a simple Morningstar controller. The revised installation was made with a Morningstar MPPT controller which appears to give much better results, especially in poor solar conditions.

Personally I would not consider joining solar panels up without a controller of some description, especially if you are not there to monitor things. We left our boat for 5 months this winter and returned to have fully charged batteries with no recorded evidence of low voltage at any stage from the controller log.

Martin Bevan
Amel 54 #56
Annapolis, USA

--- In amelyachtowners@..., Ian & Judy Jenkins <ianjudyjenkins@...> wrote:

Hi Gary,, That's really useful--I have often wondered if I have been doing something wrong with my batteries---I cosset them like new borns, recharging before they deplete more than 20% etc -- but if Gary Silver still has problems with them I know I'm not missing anything! Disappointing to hear how thirsty the Trojans are....Trojans have such a superior reputation ( and price...I daren't tell you what I paid in Sicily) that I had hoped that I might now get something approaching the 6 years which Bali Hai amazingly got out of their first set ( Bali Hai is about 12 months younger then Pen Azen.). I had better lay in some supplies of distilled water. Incidentally, do you just take the wires from your solar panels direct to your batteries and connect them to the Pos and Neg bolts in the centre of the battery box and from which the individual wires go to each battery? Cheers, Ian and Judy, Pen Azen SM 302 Malta

To: amelyachtowners@...
From: no_reply@...
Date: Tue, 11 Jun 2013 11:52:45 +0000
Subject: [Amel] Re: 24v Solar panels

Hi Ian and Judy:

I have struggled with a similar situation for years now, since I am only able to be aboard the boat for three weeks at a time, 3 to 4 times a year. I am on my 4th set of house batteries in 12 years, so I only get three years at a time. Here is my story of trial and error heavily influenced by Nigel Calder's Book. (Note that my boat is in the Caribbean and when I leave it closed up it gets very hot below deck).

In 2002 I purchased 3, Uni Solar USF-11 max power 10.3 watt flexible 12 volt solar panels (amorphous crystal panels aren't very efficient) that measured approximately 15 inches by 22inches. Note that the open circuit voltage on these 12 volt panels in bright sunlight is about 23.6 volts. Two of them I wired in series to yield a 24 volt panel (open circuit voltage of 47.2 volts). These I used to trickle charge the eight house batteries, and the single panel I used to trickle charge the starting battery. Don't be worried by the high open circuit voltage because as soon as they are attached to the batteries the voltage falls to 25ish volts/ 12.5ish volts. I installed some weather proof bulkhead connectors in a shielded area in the cockpit that was out of sight. I could plug these panels in when I left the boat, rig the panels on the foredeck with some line such that they were best oriented to the sun and left the boat un-plugged from shore power. Initially I had all Delco group 31 sealed batteries similar to the originals Amel had fitted when new. This system worked quite well for me for about 5 years. The batteries were always at 100% when I returned to the boat but the battery longevity didn't seem at all improved. During this time I read a lot about batteries and I decided when I changed the next set I would go flooded lead acid deep cycle batteries. What was available to me were Trojan SCS225 flooded lead acid batteries. 4 years ago, having just installed the new set of Trojans, and while still aboard, I left the Dolphin 30 am (small) charger on while in a slip one night, to awake the next morning to find my batteries boiling, gassing furiously, bubbling over and using an IR thermometer measured them at very hot temps that I don't recall now. Several of the batteries were bulged and measuring individual cells I found that about half of the batteries were destroyed. Faulty Dophin charger caused this damage. A reset of the charger and careful monitoring it any time I use it has never resulted in a recurrence of that event. So that is a good reason not to leave the boat "plugged in".

I have since had to replace the Uni-Solar panels. They lasted about 7 years and then succumbed to the Caribbean sun and moisture. This failure mode happened while the boat was in hurricane storage for 6 months and I returned to find the batteries severely depleted, a state from which I don't think they ever recovered. While I nursed the batteries along for a season, I finally had to replace them.

Currently I have renewed my setup with some 1 foot by 1 foot square (smaller) panels rigged and wired in the same fashion. They are hard glass panels that are more efficient than the flexible panels and are constructed to have an air-space underneath them. They get too hot to touch in bright sunlight and solar panel efficiency falls off with rising temp. They have worked well for two seasons and are easily stowed below decks when I am aboard. They have kept my new set of Trojans topped up for two seasons now.

On another note however, the Trojans seem to go through battery water at a furious rate. I think their cap system isn't up to the task in the extreme heat of the Caribbean. They will not go a month without having to have a significant amount of distilled water added. I carefully follow each cells SG (specific gravity) and voltage and watch them like a hawk, but I am just amazed at how much water they require. I don't motor a lot and I carefully monitor to make sure they aren't being over charged. The solar panels each have their own controller despite the fact that I was assured that such small panels could never over charge the banks. I have resigned myself to having a caretaker evaluate the batteries at least once a month and topping up the water. So, at least with these Trojans, you aren't completely maintenance free just by having the solar panels.

There doesn't seem to be a perfect answer to leaving the boat. At least that is my experience. Please share if you happen upon a better solution.

All the best,

Gary Silver
s/v Liahona (on the hard in Jolly Harbor, Antigua)
SM 2000 Hull # 335

--- In amelyachtowners@..., Ian & Judy Jenkins <ianjudyjenkins@> wrote:

Hi Guys 'n Gals, Pen Azen now sits idle for several months each year . We don't like to leave the battery chargers on when we are not on board. We have had poor results from our batteries ( we have 8 service batteries), changing them every two or three years. I am thinking of buying a single solar panel to trickle charge the batteries when we are not on board and I would be interested in some guidance.It seems that there are three ways of achieving 24v solar charging 1. A 24v panel ( more expensive than its 12v equivelant) 2 Two 12v panels in series ( which seems to be all that a 24v panel is anyway)3. A 12 v panel with an MPPT regulator, which claims to give 24v output without loss of power.
We have just fitted Trojan 105 Ah wet ( not sealed ) batteries which I am hoping will last rather longer than the sealed units. Hu noes?At this stage I am not interested in using solar for more than a trickle charge in our absence. Any suggestions would be welcome.
Ian and Judy, Pen Azen, SM 302, Malta

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