No I don't think so....you can't get voltage surges with a big battery bank.
IF it could possibly happen you'd be having all sorts of issues with lamps and other 24VDC devices.
The ONLY way you MIGHT have an issue with this would be if you used the EQUALISE cycle on your battery charger while the masthead light was on. The EQUALISE cycle raises the voltage to around 32VDC for a while, but that is something you would rarely do, possibly only if you had flooded batteries that you suspected of being sulphated, and if you know about equalising batteries, you would also know to turn off anything on the DC circuit before starting to do it.
Its much more likely that you have bad connections, salt water ingress into the lamp holder.....